Wednesday, 20 June 2012

I-Net+ Exam Notes

    I-Net+ Acceptance awarded by CompTIA alignment is a broadly accustomed acceptance in the breadth of Internetwoking technologies.  To attain I-Net+ certification, one charge to account at atomic 73%, and there will be about 72 questions. The continuance of the assay is 90 minutes. These exams basically analysis the Knowledge of Networking Technology and Knowledge of Networking Practices. The assay consists of 65 questions and a best acceptable time of 90 minutes. For added details, you can appointment the official website here.
Once you canyon I-Net+, a reasonable acquaintance can be accepted in the areas of Internet Basics, Internet Clients, Web development, Networking, Security, and business concepts. Some areas, such as TCP/IP model, Abode resolution, and networking protocols, and added important basal concepts are covered in both network+ and I-Net+.

  • DSL stands for Digital Subscriber Line
  • DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Agreement Protocol
  •  PPP stands for Point to point protocol
  • HTTP stands for Hyper Text Alteration Protocol
  • WWW stands for World Wide Web
  • HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language
  • PPTP stands for Point to Point Tunneling Protocol
  • L2F stands for Band 2 Forwarding
  • L2TP stands for Band 2 Tunneling Protocol
  • MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.
  • CA stands for Certificate Authority.
  • DLL stands for Dynamic Link Labrary
  • ODBC stands for Open Abstracts Abject Connectivity.
  • VRML stands for Virtual Reality Modeling Language
  • PEG stands for Joint Photographic Expers Group.
  • PNG stands for carriageable Arrangement Graphics
  • TIFF stands for Tag angel Book Format
  • MPEG stands for Moving Pictures Experts Group
  • PDF stands for Carriageable Document Format.
  • AVI stands for Audio Video Interleaved.
  • PKI stands for Accessible Key infrastructure.

1. Internetwork IP addressing:

IP addresses are accounting appliance decimal numbers afar by decimal points. This is alleged dotted decimal characters of cogent IP addresses.

The altered classes of IP addresses is as below: 

Class      Format      Leading Bit    arrangement     Network abode Ambit     Maximum networks    Maximum hosts/ nodes 
A    N.H.H.H      0    0-126     127      16,777,214 
B      N.N.H.H      10      128-191    16,384       65,534 
C      N.N.N.H     110      192-223        2,097,152      254 

N: Arrangement abode part

H: Host abode part
  • Arrangement abode of all zeros agency "This arrangement or segment".
  • Arrangement abode of all 1s agency " all networks", aforementioned as hexadecimal of all Fs.
  • Arrangement cardinal 127 is aloof for loop-back tests.
  • Host (Node) abode of all zeros beggarly "This Host (Node)".
  • Host (Node) abode of all 1s beggarly "all Hosts (Nodes) " on the defined network.
  • The ambit of numbers from to is acclimated for multicast packets. This is accepted as Class D abode range.
  • The absence subnet affectation for
  • Class A network:
  • Class B network:
  • Class C network:

2. TCP/IP agreement apartment was initially developed based on Unix operating arrangement and it is built-in to Unix. TCP/IP agreement apartment was added to added operating systems like Windows later.

3. ATM:
ATM, Asynchronous Alteration Mode, uses 53 byte beef for all transmissions All beef are 53 byte continued and abide of a 5 byte attack and 48 bytes of data.

4. T1,T2, and T3 connections:
  • The speeds of the Tx admission are as accustomed below:
  • T1: 1.544 MBPS consisting of 24 channels of 64 kBPS
  • T2: 6.312 MBPS consisting of 96 channels of 64 kBPS
  • T3: 43 MBPS consisting of 672 channels of 64 KBPS
5. DSL:
  • DSL uses absolute chestnut buzz lines. The admission speeds can be up to 9 MBPS. but has ambit limitations and accessible in alone assertive barter areas.
  • There are several categories of DSL:
  • Agee DSL (ADSL): Actuality abstracts breeze is asymmetric. Abstracts breeze in one administration is altered from that in the added direction.
  • Symmetric DSL (SDSL): Actuality the abstracts breeze is symmetric, that the abstracts flows appropriately in both directions.
  • Added not so abundant acclimated or accepted types of DSL are BDSL, HDSL, and VDSL.

6. The ambit of numbers from to is acclimated for multicast packets. This is accepted as Class D abode range.

7. Telnet, FTP, and TFTP:
  •  TCP/IP is the agreement acclimated aback you are Telnetting to a alien host. Telnet is acclimated for terminal appetite that runs programs remotely.
  • FTP is acclimated to alteration files. FTP is a connection-oriented protocol. It uses TCP/IP for book transfer.
  • TFTP (Trivial Book Alteration Protocol) uses UDP. TFTP is a connectionless protocol.

8. A accurate IP abode on a host / bulge can't alpha with 127; 127.X.X.X is aloof for bounded bend back. A accurate IP abode can't be beyond than 255 (in any octet), The best accustomed amount is 255 in any or aggregate of octets. For example, is an invalid IP, back one octet exceeded the amount 255. An archetype of accurate IP is

9. Tracert, Ping use ICMP as their abject protocol. ICMP letters are agitated in IP abstracts grams.

10. SMTP is acclimated to upload mail to the mail server. POP3 is acclimated for downloading mail from a mail server to a applicant apparatus active POP3 client.
11. A firewall is a aegis mechanism, which prevents crooked admission to a arrangement or a ability on a network.

12. Important anchorage numbers:

The anchorage numbers acclimated by altered programs are as below:
  • FTP: Anchorage #21
  • Telnet: Anchorage #23
  • SMTP: Anchorage #25
  • SNMP: Anchorage #161
  • WWW: anchorage 80,
  • NNTP: anchorage 119,
  • POP: anchorage 110.

It is additionally important to apperceive that FTP, Telnet, SMTP use TCP; admitting TFTP, SNMP use UDP.

13. Repeaters, Bridges, and Routers:
  • Repeaters assignment at Physical band (Layer 1),
  • Bridges and simple switches assignment at Abstracts Link Band (Layer 2),
  • Routers assignment at Arrangement Band (Layer 3) of ISO Reference Model.
14. Aperture is acclimated to construe protocols, as it works at appliance layer.

15. Telnet requires an username and countersign to access.

 16. ISDN:
  • ISDN specifies two accepted admission methods:
  • BRI (Basic Rate Interface):
  • Consists of two B channels (64Kbps) and one D approach (16Kbps).
  • The B channels can be acclimated for digitized accent manual or for almost accelerated abstracts transport.
  • The D approach carries signaling advice (call setup) to ascendancy calls on B channels.
  • PRI (Primary Rate Interface):
  • Consists of 23 B channels and one D approach  with a bandwidth of 1.544Mbps.
  • PRI uses a DSU/CSU for a T1 connection. B stands for Bearer Channel.

17. TCP/IP anchorage assignments acclimated in the Internet: Originating antecedent anchorage numbers are dynamically assigned by antecedent host, and usually greater than 1023. The afterward are the recommended anchorage numbers:
  • Numbers 0 - 255 are acclimated for accessible applications
  • Numbers 255 - 1023 are assigned to companies so that they can use these anchorage numbers in their applications.
  • Numbers aloft 1023 are acclimated by high layers to set up sessions with added hosts and by TCP to use as antecedent and destination addresses.
18. Some of the important commands advantageous in agitation cutting TCP/IP networks:

I.- Ipconfig: Displays TCP/IP agreement values, including IP address, subnet mask, and absence gateway.

II.- Ping: This command can be acclimated to verify whether the ambition ip abode or host name is present. You charge to specify the ambition IP abode or host name.

III- Route:  Displays and manipulates avenue information.
IV.- Tracert: Determines the avenue packets booty to ability the defined destination.

19. HTTP
is the agreement acclimated for accessing the World Wide Web services. HTTP operates over TCP/IP. TCP/IP is the protocol, which is acclimated by all internet applications such as WWW, FTP, Telnet etc.   IPX/SPX is proprietary agreement assemblage of Novell NetWare.

20. TCP is a full-duplex, connection-oriented protocol. It incorporates absurdity blockage as well. UDP (User Abstracts gram Protocol): UDP is a attenuate protocol. UDP is a connectionless protocol. It doesn't acquaintance the destination afore sending the packet and doesn't affliction whether the packet is accomplished at the destination. UDP uses anchorage cardinal 6.

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